Almighty Latin Kings and Queens Nation

"Once you understand who you are and what you're fighting for, ain't nobody, not bullets, not cops, not anything that can stop us. We're invincible."

The Kings Manifesto Constitution states that the ALKQN was made to fight Third World oppression these words by the authors Papa King and Lord Bomba.

The genesis:

Chicago Illinois in the beginning there was the "Sun". The "Sun Tribe" that is , a.k.a The Latin Kings Nation. They made an attempt to unite and fight the oppression that the Labor Aristrocacy would impress upon the new Mexican and Puerto Rican immigrants who would be accused of taking what jobs were left from the dying industrial age. Such a day came with King Eddie (Lord Bomba) in the early 1960's and a new generation of L.K.N resurfaced calling themselves The Almighty Latin Kings Nation a.k.a "The Lion Tribe" Lord Bomba fought for control of the neo-colonial element that was seeping into its ranks and along with Papa King the next edition of the Kings Manifesto/Constitution was created by both these warrior kings. The Manifesto was element of making it clearly known that the ALKQN was on the side of the Third World to fight against "the oppressor" aka The Imperialist. So far Lord Bomba and Papa Kings KM/C is the most advanced. King Eddie's death by Folks of a different natures caused the old man "Lord Gino" and another Lord I won't mention since he's been keeping on the D.L. to inherit. These three upheld the KM/C and a nation of thousands at present date 20,000 in one city became these three legacy. From them spouted "Kingsm" 1-2-3, the KM/C and the fruition of a powerful lumpen organization. The legacy of "The Sun King"..."The sun may rise in the west and set in the east but it's highest peak in the Midwest"...Amor De Rey!!! The Mass ALKQN began in the "beginning of its decade" Lord Grim as it's first organizer and co-founding leadership with King Hec-Man and King Shadow both doing life in prision. Initially authority came from Conn. and transferred to the Motherland to "El Sagrado Majestad Sun King" y Las Coronas. My love and loyalty to Lord Gino, King V and King C of the oldest chapter under the sun. Using "Lord" doesn't signify a superiority, merely an honor bestowed upon a comrade who was held state rank for over 10 years, founded a "Nation" chapter and other requisites. The honor given by The National Sun King of Chicago IL.


“Knowledge has become the key resource for a nation’s military strength as well as for its economic strength. And this knowledge can be acquires only through schooling. It is not tied to any country. It is portable. It can be created everywhere, fast and cheaply. Finally it is by definition changing. By the end of this century knowledge workers (people whose jobs focus on working with information) will make up a third or more of the work force in the United States. The majority of them will be paid at least as well as, or better than, manufacturing workers ever were. And the new jobs offer much greater opportunities. But-and this is a big but-the great majority of the new jobs require a good deal of formal education and the ability to acquire and apply theoretical and analytical knowledge. Above all, they require a habit of continuous learning. Education will become the center of the knowledge society, and the school its key institution.”

Lord Grim

Twelve to Eighteen thousand years ago there exisisted in South America a city called Tiajuanaca what is now known to be Bolivia. In this city you could find beautiful buildings, amazing pyramids, walls of well calculated proportions. The people of the city were men of advanced knowledge they knew of difficult mathematics, they designed their city to fit astronomical alignments. For those who didn't understand that, what I meant was they made a map of the stars in a way that would watch their home; this way they knew when the seasons of the weather were approaching. I mean they were "Trepau"(Trepado). While Europe was still living in caves, these brothers managed to build an advanced civilization where music, art, poetry, writing brought culture to the Tiajuanacans(Tee- o-Hua-nockins). You weren't told this in High school, you won't find this knowledge in the institutional White Mans Books. And do you know why my brothers and sisters, cousins, and comrades? Because this information, this history would be considered an "Anomalous Artifact" by the Euro-centric society. What it means is a prove history or artifact that destroys historical credibility. Because Tiajuanaca City existed, we prove beyond a shadow of a dought that it was our ancestors that were the (Cradle of Civilization) or in other words the first advanced society. Our ancestors were intellectually developed earlier than the Europeans and no white man wants to hear the truth. So instead they put up a "Knowledge Filler", that means they screen the history in order to maintain the untrue but popular history or the "popular paradine" in other words. And why should I give a damn about some Indians from back in the day; you may ask yourself. I tell you to give a damn because in your blood you not only have the blood Spanish Conquistadors, but your blood also holds of those same advanced Indians that live so long ago. And this is the Blood of Kings. The same kind of blood that makes us all great in Body, Mind, and Spirit. You see by inheritance of blood and genes, you are great, you are somebody ... Can't nobody top the Brown, and history has proved our greatness although this truth is hidden. Hermanitos & Hermanitas, Primitos & Primitas I tell you all this because there is a greater force hiding our genius than the Euro-centric society ... This force kills with ignorance leaving us drug addicts, young widows; this force would poison our people through drugs and not care how many spirits die with each "bolsa de manteca". Can anyone guess what Ris Oppressive Force is? That oppressive force that has nearly killed our people is ... YOU ... YOU and I ... Every bag of dope we sell, every gun that you and I turn against a Brown Man, is another nail to the coffin Our Boricua Cultre, Our Dominican Culture, Our Cuban Culture, Italian, Etc... I learned this knowledge the hard way ... And I'm giving you this knowledge for free ... But you know this and you keep on ... Some of you be sniffing that chaos, others may be strapped waiting for the next sucker to pull a stunt. Well this is what your I tell you. If there is a poison to be sold, sell it to the oppressor; if there is a gun to be pointed, point it at the oppressor. The architect of oppression. Because cultural suicide isn't the Latin Kings and Queens objective. I know where you come from when you have to defend yourself when a Brown brother attacks your body ..."Yeah he needs to be checked with the quickness" and believe me I'm hip, but when you snuff a dude for $25.00 or sell some crack to a mother, you're destroying yourself... My words are not pretty because life is not pretty ... You dealers in the crowd ... I'm hip to your circumstance but if could transfer your method of operation to a place where your own people aren't hurt by it ... Then that is Latin King Wisdom. This Letter comes from the escalation of violence and drug arrests that are allegedly related to L/K's and L/Q's activity. Every year we grow powerful upstate ... But that's not where we're sup

" Cowards die many times before their death, Latin Kings never taste death but once"



Atheism & Kingism

BY: Minister David EL
They are few, but not absent, they are among us and have no idea that their presence is not welcome in the circumference of our Nations 360º. They are those known as Atheists, people who do not believe in Yahweh (God) the Almighty Father King of all Kings. I have touched upon many situations in this nation that have stirred up controversy, but this one is the only one so far that really needs no explanation. How a King could be an Atheist is beyond my Understanding, for we are a Nation built on the worship of our Father Yahweh YHWH. The Atheist really has no place in this Nation, and although the reasons are obvious and evident in our literature and even in our unwritten laws, ways and customs I will take this time to point out those obvious reasons for all those that overlook the obvious. The first word in our name is ALMIGHTY, and in our lessons it is broken down as an acronym; each letter having is own significance. I must reiterate and emphasize that it is the FIRST word in our name. Every letter in the name "ALMIGHTY LATIN KINGS NATION" is part of an acronym, and it is very important to note that the first word explains the substance and essence of our Nation as a complete devotion to Yahweh. This lesson was not an accident as all righteous literature is indeed inspired by the Father Yahweh. It is no coincidence that the first thing you learn from the acronym of ALMIGHTY LATIN KINGS NATION is that we exist for and are one with that supernatural force which created the entire universe; Yahweh YHWH.


This statement alone is enough ground to deny the Atheist into our fold! It measures our King Love with that which the Atheist calls a myth! Being that the Atheist believes that there is no El (God) then how can he measure the love of our Nation by a great Harmony (united with) Yahweh? This bold statement signifies members of our Nation being in constant companionship and unity with the All in All omnipresent invisible force Yahweh YHWH. We as kings humble ourselves to this Higher Power we know as Yahweh YHWH in prayer as we know that it is the Higher Power that will carry us over the obstacles we come across, and it is Yahweh who answers our prayers with his blessings.


The very foundation of this Nation is the Kings Manifesto, in which you will find prayers to the Almighty Father before even going into the rules and regulations of our Nation. Both prayers in the Manifesto begin with a salutation in a show of High Reverence towards Yahweh the father and El of the Universe. The HOLY PRAYER begins with "Almighty Father King of Kings, Maker of the universe and foundation of life." How in the world can an Atheist recite these words? This puts all things that we know to be in existence in the hands of the one who the Atheist calls a myth! The KINGS AND QUEENS PRAYER begins with the honorific words: "Oh king of the Universe, Supreme Maker of all things". As I mentioned before, we must take special note of the fact that the very foundations of our teachings honor the Almighty Father King of all Kings Yahweh. I would not promote what I felt was not inspired or driven by the Father, and I do promote our Kings Manifesto as an inspired teaching of Yahweh. These prayer are towards Yahweh, the kings manifesto clearly demonstrates our devotion, loyalty and worship of Yahweh, our El (God), being the very foundation of our Manifesto the Atheist is in fact not following Kingism. In prayer we ask the Almighty Father for blessings and to deliver certain requests that the Atheist believes cannot be delivered by Yahweh, but only by man. For example we ask to bring peace to our souls (Does an Atheist even believe in the soul?), we ask for guidance and protection, we ask for our minds and hearts to be illuminated, we ask for blessings towards our departed, and we ask for strength. All these things an Atheist disagrees with. The Atheist believes that all these things derive from modern technology, science, philosophy, and the self. The Atheist does not believe that the Almighty Father delivers these things to us but that we do it on our own. It is imperative that we realize that we are ignoring the inspiration and devotion required of Yahweh if we allow Atheists to enter our Nation. See how Yahweh Name lives in our lessons and how his guidance, presence and blessings drive our Nation! The Kings and Queens prayer is used as the required knowledge for entry into this Nation, and is a prayer to Yahweh. If an Atheist enters our Nation this way then he has conned his way in to this Nation by use of deception. Deception is a strong word, but what other word can one use to describe the action of one entering our nation through false pretenses? While the prayer is to have meaning and is not to be said just as key to enter a door, then saying it without belief in Yahweh is to deceive our people. The Nations Manifesto is built on the foundation of Yahweh Name, and therefore if we have allowed an Atheist into our 360º then we have been infiltrated. Just as important is the ending of each of our prayers, for they start with the honoring of Yahweh and end with "be the path to thee". How much more can we add? Much more! That statement declares that the goal is unification with the Father and his righteousness. The prayers clearly close with a belief that our Nations path is a path to Yahweh! In the Kings Holy Prayer it mentions peace on both continents, this is a biblical term describing Heaven and Earth, the two properties of Yahweh since the beginning of time. If the Atheist does not believe in a God then he also does not believe in Heaven. Are we to say to ourselves, "well, since he is a righteous brother we can ignore the fact that he does not believe in a great portion of our manifesto"? If that is the case then anyone is allowed to break rules in the manifesto as long as they feel its their belief, and no one could be tried, dismissed or even questioned!


I am a firm believer that a King should be asked if he will pledge his devotion to Yahweh. Yes he must believe in Yahweh and No, he cannot be an atheist if he is to be a member of this Nation. I mentioned that our prayers were recorded even before our rules, but even the next lesson after our two prayers indicate our servitude towards Yahweh and once again begins with the bold statement that we are "A Religion".
The Almighty Latin Kings Nation is a Religion that gives us faith in ourselves
Line seven of lesson IV states "If you want to find Yahweh, serve the Almighty Latin Kings Nation". Once again it is made clear that this Nation is a path to Yahweh and that this Nation is a body of Yahweh., for in it you will find Yahweh. Finally the obligation to believe in Yahweh is not danced around in poetic phrases but clearly declared as line eight of lesson IV reads "Pledge devotion to the Almighty Latin Kings Nation, to Yahweh and all oppressed people". The key words are DEVOTION and YAHWEH. If you still are blind then read it again, and for those who see, and knows a king that chooses to be blind and refuses to listen I present Confucius line 4. It reads "He who does not know, and does not know that he does not know, is a fool, avoid him". Here we are instructed to oust those who are Atheist for those who do not know Yahweh and his Nations ways are blind, they do not even know that they do not know and therefore are labeled fools! We are instructed to avoid them, and how do we avoid but by keeping them out of our kingdom? In our Kings Manifestos CODE OF KINGISM, line eight states that our departed brothers and sisters are rested in peace in the "Sanctuary of the Almighty Father King of Kings". Therefor it is written here, that a king believes in Heaven and in soul. An Atheist does neither. In the NATIONS SALUTE line 2 it reads "follower of Yahweh, who is the Almighty Father King of Kings". Now we come to the point of our sacred Nation Salute, and what it means when it is raised. If its meaning is indeed representing that we are willing to die for our brothers for the King of Kings Yahweh, then how can a King raise it up while he does not believe in Yahweh? Once again our salute is being used as a Key to open the door, and not felt for its true meaning. There are three types of people this triangle and struggle for truth.

The ATHEIST says:
There is no God


I am God

The KING says:

There is One God, who is the Yahweh, the Almighty Father King of all Kings, maker of the universe and foundation of life. The all in all, Alpha and Omega, Black and Gold, Universal Force that contains, blesses, controls, guides and protects us all. Which one are you? Where is your devotion? Are you truly a King? All praise to be to the Almighty Father King of all Kings Yahweh (YHWH). May his hands place blessings upon the kings and queens of this sun ship on this earth and entire universe ask these blessings of the Holy Spirit in the name of the son Yahshuah, and the will of the Almighty father king of all Kings Yahweh (YHWH).


As it was in the beginning ,it is now and for ever shall be, a world with no end. AMOR DE CORONA! Human pride and self-exaltation often lead to the disparagement of others and presumptuous behavior. when one humbles himself and submits to kingism ,his attitude toward his brothers and sisters and toward life in general will make a marked change. The spirit of humility cannot coexist with a spirit of haughtiness toward others and overconfidence in the security and invulnerability of the future. Having established the need to give kingism undivided allegiance will proceed to write against censorious and judge mental speech within the body and overconfidence in the future. Having given the injunction against abusive speech, I will explain why such verbal disparagement of a fellow brother/sister is so inappropriate. The one who speaks against a brother/sister is in effect, passing judgement on his/hers peer. The command of the Almighty Father King of all Kings (The Lord)is "do not pass judgement and you will not be judged; and do not condemn, and you shall not be condemned; pardon, and you will be pardoned"(Luke 6:37;cf.matt.7:1) Paul counseled,"let us not judge one another anymore"(rom.14:13).

Learning to control the tongue

A true mark of a persons maturity is the proper control of one speech. When speaking of the control of the tongue we are addressing the whole body. At this time Im addressing those who are and desire to be teachers. Teachers also do have positions of dignity and responsibility. The universality of sin is clear we all stumble (the word stumble indicates a mistake that is blameworthy, a moral lapse). Not only do we all repeatedly stumble, but also we all do so in many ways. The sin of the tongue is one among many, though a very significant one. When Paul listed five different organs of the body that are vehicles of sin, he named throat, tongue, lips, mouth, and feet (Romans 3:13-15) It is informative that four out of five relate to speech. So important is the tongue that if a person can control it, they are a perfect man/woman, for he/she have the body under control. He/She has come to spiritual maturity. We must start learning on how to control the tongue, for the tongue is what controls the body and ones actions and ones action is based on his/hers knowledge. Little things can have far reaching effects and though the tongue is little, it has great potential for both usefulness and destruction, (This is what we call the double-edged sword). It also boasts of great things, now the phrase can be understood in one of two ways, it may mean the tongue is haughty, with a false sense of importance, as in psalm 13:3 the tongue speaks great things. But it more probably means that the tongue has great power; though with the use of the tongue many great things can be accomplished and incalculable power released That great power, which should be harnessed for good, can also do damage. Always remember that its only by the power of the Almighty Father King of all Kings is anyone enabled to control the tongue; such a person is called a perfect one. I can give you two pictures of the uncontrolled tongue: A restless evil and deadly poison (restless is translated unstable). It portrays an untamed animal restlessly pacing back and forth in its cage ready to pounce on anyone who dares to come near. The tongue is also full of deadly poison. It has been said, the poison of asps is under their lips. Hurtful gossip and whispered slander could be destructive to innocent people and devastating to the body. Satan the serpent of old, was called by YAHWEH a murderer, a liar and father of lies, for it was through the tongue that Satan tempted Eve, and Eve enticed Adam. A persons reputation and self-esteem can be destroyed through the malicious tongue. As Solomon said, death and life are in the power of the tongue. Let us also know that the most sublime function of the human tongue is to bless YAHWEH. Yet this same instrument curses man/woman. To curse is preposterous and contrary to reason, for they whom we curse bears image of YAHWEH, whom we bless. It is that divine stamp upon our soul that relates us to the Almighty Father King of all Kings. He is YAHWEH, appointed representative over his creation. Control your tongue to the best of your ability and you will see how the body will function properly...
"The sun may rise in the west and set in the east but it's highest peak in the Midwest"...Amor De Rey!!!

El Grito De Lares

The "Grito de Lares" is Puerto Rico's first and only cry for Independence. On September 23, 1868 between 600 to 1000 men, mostly Puerto Rican born and from the west of the Island, revolted for Independence from Spain. Of the arrested most were innocent jíbaros their only guilt was being passive victims of the political regime. The citizens of the Capital as well as the wealthy were indifferent to the independence movement. The men were poorly armed without aid, protection or training. The revolt which was planned for September 29th began instead on the 23rd as a result of betrayal.

On the evening of the 23rd the most daring met at the farm of Manuel Rojas in Pezuelas, Lares. Led by Manuel Rojas this group of men marched towards Lares. Second in command was Matías Brugman, other leaders were Joaquín Parrilla, Eusebio Ibarra, Manuel Cebollero, Juan Terreforte, Andrés Pol y Gambino Plumey. This group was able to "take" Lares without any resistance before the Spaniards became aware if the revolt. The group proceeded to form a provisional government declaring an independent Puerto Rico Republic. The new President was Francisco Ramírez, Aurelio Méndez was the Government Minister, Clemente Millán was the Justice Minister, Federico Valencia was the Minister of the Treasury, Manuel Ramírez was the Secretary of State, Bernabé Pol was the Secretary. The following day they marched to San Sebastián where the Spanish militia awaited them and the rest is history.

Within 24 hours the revolt, which was twelve years in the planning, was defeated by the Spanish government. Of the participants 20 escaped, 8 died in action, 7 were tried by the War Council. Four months later Spain declared a general amnesty. No one was executed or kept in jail over 4 months. However 80 died in jail from yellow fever. The majority of the insurgents were Puerto Ricans and represented diverse socio-economic and racial levels. Of the 551 that were ultimately charged, 93% were born in west Puerto Rico and only 17 in the northeast. Mayagüez and Pepino produced one third of the suspects. 27 towns contributed men with only 10 town supplying 85% of the insurgents. Only 7% were foreign born. Dr. Betances was allowed to go to France in exile.

The reasons for the defeat were: the betrayal of the plan; Betances' inability to arrive with the weapons or ammunitions; and the fact that the general citizenry was lukewarm to the movement.

The insurrection had several leaders the most prominent being; Ramón Emeterio Betances (1827-1898), leading the movement from exile in Santo Domingo and Segundo Ruiz Belvis (1829-1867) co-leader with Betances. Ana María (Mariana) Bracetti Cuevas (1825-1903), wife of one of the members of the insurrection, sewed the revolutionary flag designed by Betances. The reason for the insurrection were: POVERTY, SLAVERY, taxation, lack of opportunity, and military rule.

The revolt was not a total loss. Shortly after the revolt Spain gave the Island many liberal reforms. It extended to Puerto Rico some of the liberal constitution that it had allowed during the war in Spanish America. Puerto Rico received provincial status and Spanish Citizenship was granted to the criollos. Some political reforms granted were allowing Boricuas to participate in special elections and to organize themselves into officially recognized political parties. Abolition of slavery began slowly in 1869 and was completed in 1873 giving freedom to some thirty two thousand slaves. (In 1827 there were approximately four times the number of free Africans in Puerto Rico than slaves. Partly due to the creole's distaste for slavery, often freeing their own slaves.) The libreta system was also canceled during the same year. Some of these concessions were canceled or changed later on but nevertheless the insurrection was fruitful and resulted in an improved lifestyle for the Puerto Ricans.

El Grito de Lares is now immortalized. In 1969 Governor Luis A. Ferré, a statehood supporter, declared September 23rd a National Holiday. Lares was declared a Historic Site by the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture. Lares is known as the birthplace of Puerto Rican Nationalism.

The Tainos-The Almighty Indians

Imagine the "Eden" called Borikén. It was ruled by nature. A place that was almost completely a rain forest from shore to shore. A place filled with yagrumos, alelis, ceibas, orchids, wild mushrooms - some over 6 feet wide, over 100 species of palm trees, bamboo, elephant ear leaves of the yautía, giant philodendron, giant ferns, mamey and guava trees. A place where wild life such as cangrejos, manatees, giant sea turtles, iguanas, cotorras, and carpinteros lived undisturbed by man. Giant fish jumped out of rivers and oceans. Each evening Boriken was cooled by the breezes of the Mar Caribe and serenaded by trillions of coquies. This was our Isla del Encanto during the reign of the brave Taíno people.

In spite of being almost completely wiped out within two decades, the Taínos left us their heritage - a legacy. Traces of Taíno physical characteristics are found in Taíno descendants clustered in areas of Borinquen. The names of many towns Mayagüez, Coamo, foods (mamey), instruments, trees and plants are original Taíno names. We have little detail knowledge of Taíno culture, religion and daily life. What we know comes from Spanish documents and from recent excavations.

Much has been said of the Taínos lately but it wasn't until the early 1900's that the study of the Taínos took off. The origins of the Taínos was not proven until 1950 when scientists were able to trace them through their unique white on red pottery. Their origins are in the Orinoco and Amazon River basins - what is now Venezuela and Guianas. The Taínos began their migration, in waves, through the Caribbean Islands approximately in 900 BC. Their origins have been traced to the Village of Saladero in Venezuela.

As the years passed the Arawakans who landed in the Greater Antilles developed a distinct culture that we now call Taíno. This distinct culture was somewhat different than the original Arawak culture and different from their brothers, the fierce Caribs, of the Lesser Antilles.

The Taíno written language was in the form of petroglyphs or symbols that were carved in stone. They spoke Arawakan. Their society was communal. Polygamy was common. The Taínos were farmers and fishermen.

Cristóforo Colombo wrote in his journal that Taínos had beautiful tall slender bodies. Their color was dark or olive and wore short haircuts with a long hank at the back of the head. They were clean shaven and hairless. The islands were densely populated. According to Cristobal Colón the Taíno tongue was "gentle, the sweetest in the world, always with a laugh".

Borikén's head cacique at the time of the arrival of Colón was Agüeybaná. The island was divided into cacicazgos. Puerto Rico had approximately 20 caciques at the time of Columbus. The Island was divided into provinces, districts and villages each with a cacique.

The social structure was as follows: Nitaínos were the noblemen and were the warriors, craftsmen & artesans. Naborias were the laborers and were the lower class. Caciques (chiefs) were inherited positions and came from the nitaino class. Bohikes (shamans) were from a lineage of bohikes. The social structure was matrilineal - the lineage was carried by the mother. It's not clear if Nitaínos were born into or earned their social class. The Nitaínos ruled over the naborias. The naborias were like serfs. Naborias fished, hunted, worked the conucos and generally did the hard labor.

The Cacique was a hereditary position of great privilege that transcended individual yucayeques. The cacique was polygamous. Some of his wives were from political marriages that would unite yucayeques and form alliances. The cacique also wore a distinctive head covering made from a cotton band with a gold Amulet or seal of the tribal chieftains and was fashioned with blue and red macaw feathers and other parrot feathers of many colors. Caciques also wore a Mao that was a round white cotton cover with a center hole used to cover the shoulders, chest and back. The Mao was a status symbol and was also used to keep the sun off the shoulders. Caciques participated in the cohoba ceremonies. They also owned the most powerful religious symbols carved from wood or stone. A cacique was carried on a litter by Naborias. Often a cacique's favorite wife or wives were buried alive with him. First they were given drink a potion that would allow them to sleep through it.

The Yucayeques were built close to a source of water with a courtyard in the middle and under tall trees. Yucayeques had four roads that led out from the batey. A tall fence surrounded the village. A road was built leading directly to the water source with two tall lookout towers at either side. Around the yucayeques were the conucos or farms. Some times ball game plazas were built outside the walls.

Yucayeques never went to sleep completely. There were lookout posts to be manned, nocturnal fishing and all night rituals to be conducted. The first order of the day was ritual bathing and prayers. A morning meal of cassave bread dipped in the communal pepper pot was served. Labor was then assigned by the leaders according to gender and group.

Bohíos were round with conical shaped roofs without windows. The Caneys, always located in a prominent location, were rectangular structures with windows, built for the caciques and bohiques only. They were large and sometimes fit 15 families. The shelters were built from bejucos and red de caña and had thick walls. Each bohío and caney had storage space made from a flat surface that hung from the roof of the dwelling. The storage space was filled with woven baskets that contained useful items. The floor of the dwelling was packed dirt and was immaculatly clean. A fogón, a burén (griddle) and an olla (a large covered clay pot for cooking) were found along with dujos and hammocks for seating. Tamed parrots and a small type domesticated dog were kept.

Taínos cultivated bitter manioc or yuca in conucos (raised gardens). Conucos were tall mounds of loose dirt built for farming. They were 10 to 15 feet wide and as tall as a man. Conucos is where the Yucca was planted since it needs aerated soil.

Yuca was the Taíno staple food and from it flour and casava bread were made. The Taínos primarily used tubers as a source of food. Also harvested were guanabána, yautía, squash, mamey, papaya, pineapple, achiote, sweet potatoes, yams, and corn. Peanuts, lerénes, guava, soursop, pineapples, sea grapes, black-eyed peas, ajíes caballeros, and lima beans grew wild.

Processing of the manioc was a lengthy process. First the yuca tubers were pealed with a sharpened rock, then grated and squeezed in a woven sleeve to squeeze out the poisonous juices. The flour was used to make casava bread which was cooked on a griddle propped on stones over a fire. The cooked bread was dried and stored and could be eaten months later. A soup was made using the poisonous juice of the yuca, cooking it until it was harmless. It cooked into a thick brown liquid that was seasoned with meats, yams, casava bread, sweet potatoes, and lots of pepper. They called this stew a "pepper pot".

Taínos believed that corn grew with the moon so it was planted on hillsides during new moon. Some corn was picked while young and tender and eaten raw. Fully ripened corn was roasted. Corn bread was made by soaking the kernels in water and mashing to form into loaves. Loaves were wrapped in leaves and cooked with a little water. Corn bread had to be eaten within a few days or it would spoil. Corn husks were used to wrap food for cooking. Beer was also made from corn.

The men cleared the fields for farming, hunted, fished, built canoas (canoes) and wooden paddles and protected the yucayeques. Men fished using a net made from plant fibers. They formed harpoons from wood and tipped them with flint from bone or shells. They made fishing lines from plant fiber. They used a suckerfish (remora) to fish by attaching a line to it and letting it swim away from the canoas until it attached itself to a turtle of some large fish. Then the line was carefully pulled in and the prey captured. They would also crush roots and stems of a poisonous shrub and cast it into the rives. As the fish became stunned by the poison they could be caught by hand. The poison did not affect the fish for eating. They harvested conch, oysters, crabs, and other shell fish.

Not much hunting went on because there was no large game. But they hunted birds, manatees, snakes, parrots, jutías (small rodents), iguanas and waterfowl. The Taínos would hollow a calabash, cutting "eye holes" into it. They would wear the calabash on their head while submerged in rivers or beaches and thus were able to catch birds by grabbing them by the legs. They would use hats covered with leaves to catch parrots - a delicacy. The men cooked on a BBQ - and this is where our modern BBQ comes from.

An interesting fact is that the pilón was first used by the Taíno Indians. Historians like Fray Iñigo Abbad, and Fernández de Oviedo mention having seen the Indians use giant size vases to mash different things. The ancient pilones were much like the pilones of today. Same shaped but quite rustic and waist high. Taínos would place one foot on the base to prevent it from tipping over when hit with the giant macetas. Taínos used large hollowed out tree trunks to form waist-tall pilones. The hole was approximately 25 inches in diameter - of course they often varied in size. Some were small hand-held pilones but still larger than the ones we use today. Since Taínos used them - pilones were found in all the Caribbean Islands. The hole for the pilón was burned out and carved using simple rustic tools. Giant macetas were carved out of trees also. The final product depended on the talents of the carver. Some were very rustic, most were just plain and practical. Some were well finished smooth and shinny on the outside. Some were pieces of art with elaborate carvings. Taínos used the pilón and maceta to mash corn, spices, medicinal herbs and other things. Ingredients to make body paint were also processed in a pilón.

The canoas were carved from a single giant tree trunk. Spanish documents recorded that it took about two months to "fell" a tree or to take it down by burning and chipping. Then it took many months to complete the canoe. Some canoas carried over 100 adults and were used to travel great distances. Smaller canoas were also used. Taínos preferred to stay close to home so their trade was mostly within the islands.

Women cooked, tended to the needs of the family, tended the farm and harvested the crops. They also made pots, grills, and griddles from river clay by rolling the clay into rope and then layering to form or shape. The inside was smoothed with stones and the spouts cut out with stones or sticks. The clay pottery was fired in a hole covered with flat stones and a fire built above it. Firing took many hours.

Mothers carried their babies on their back on a padded board that was secured to the baby's forehead. The board flattened the baby's forehead. Thus Taínos had a flat forehead - something they found attractive.

Carved dujos made from stone or wood with a raised tail used as a back rest were carved by both men and women. Dujos were short seats with four short legs with feet. Dujos with very tall backrests were ceremonial seats used by caciques and bohiques. Ceremonial dujos were richly decorated using gold laminate and semiprecious stones. They were a symbol of prestige.

Taínos did not mine or dig for gold. Gold nuggets were hand picked rivers from between the gravel in shallow streams.The gold was used to make earrings and nose jewelry. They also pounded the gold to make foils which were used to decorate ceremonial masks, belts and other artifacts. Both women and men made beaded bracelets and necklaces using coral, shells, and stones.

Cotton was cultivated and spun into threads for hammock and naguas. Naguas were frontal aprons worn by married women and the only clothing worn by Taínos. The length of the nagua was determinted by rank. The longer the nagua the higher the rank. Fibers from the calabash tree were also used to make twine and rope for baskets and to use in construction. Stripped fibers from palm branches were used to make cord. Some of this cord was used for hammocks. One hammock used approximately 1 mile of cord and was finished in 13 hours.

Areytos were religious ceremonies held in the batey often involving neighboring yucayeques. Ceremonial dancing was one of the principal activities. Music and feasting accompanied the ritual dance. Dressing up for an Areyto meant colorful body paint, parrot feathers, seashell and coral jewelry, gold nugget earrings and nose jewelry. The caciques and bohiques wore capes decorated with feathers. The areytos celebrated different achievements, rituals, or social activities like the birth of a cacique's child, marriage ceremonies, death, or the visit of important guests. The maraca and güiro were played as well as large drums. Conch shell trumpets and flutes made from bones or reed were played. Roasted iguana was served along with cassava bread, yams, and perhaps pineapples. Corn beer was a favorite during areytos. Aguinaldos included in the areyto were tribal histories, genealogies, tales of great conquests and battles. Mock battles and ball games were held. Often areytos lasted several days.

Cemis encompassed the spirit of the god Yocahú. The cemis were kept in shrine rooms. Taínos credited cemis with powers that affected weather, crops, health, childbirth etc. The cemis came in all shapes and sizes including the "three-pointer". The artists completed their own renditions of the cemis and this form of art and religious representation was abundant. They were carved from stone or wood. Many were adorned with semi-precious stones and gold. Most had representations of animals and man with frog-like legs.

The bohique had cemis painted on his body, sometimes he blacked his face with charcoal and he used tobacco, medicinal herbs, chants, the sounding of the maraca, and magic to heal. He taught the children of the elite group. Subjects taught included social protocol, duties, obligations, mythology, and history.

The bohique and cacique inhaled ground "cohoba" seeds, a hallucinogen. Often tobacco and ground shells were added to the cohoba in order to enhance the performance. A ritual cleansing that included carved vomiting sticks precided inhaling the hallucinogen. Cohoba was inhaled into the nose with tubes made from a variety of materials like bones or tubers. The cacique's hallucinations were interpreted as communication with the various gods.

Taínos were ancestor worshipers. They believed that the spirits of the dead remained in their bones so they kept skeletons of relatives in baskets in their dwellings. Often maybe just heads of important members of the family. These were kept in the storage area of the bohío that hung from the ceiling. They believed in an afterlife so great care was given to the deceased and they were buried with offerings, and food.

The ceremonial ball game called "batey" was played using a ball made from rubber plants and reed that bounced. The ball was heavy and the participants wore some kind of padding on the body for protection. The "batey" game consisted of two teams. It was layed in a rectangular plaza edged by pillars with petroglyphs. After the game began the ball could not be touched by the hands. It was kept in the air by hitting it with the head, shoulders, arms, hips, or legs. In Puerto Rico the Taínos used a game belt made from cotton threads or carved from stone. Some teams were made up of women only.

Athletic events were held in the batey or plaza found in the middle of the yucayeque. Wrestling matches, foot races, archery contests, song and dance were characteristic of Taíno athletic events.

Part of the Taíno legacy to us is their art. Not much of it has survived but there are sculptures, ceramics, jewelry, weaving, scepters, daggers, cemis, dujos, game belts and other Taíno artifacts in museums today. Most of their ceremonial artifacts were hidden from the Spanish in caves.

The Taíno legacy of hospitality is evident in the campesinos in rural areas in Puerto Rico today.

On September 25, 1493, Cristobal Colón sailed from the port of Cádiz, Spain on his second voyage to the New World. A stop was made in the Canary Islands. On November 3rd they came upon the island of Guadalupe where they rescued a handful of Indians from the hands of the "Caribs". The Indians claimed to be from an island further north called Borikén. After discovering the Virgin Islands they spotted Puerto Rico and the Sierra de Luquillo. To the amazement of the Spaniards the Indians jumped into the oceans and swam for shore. The fleet of ships continued to sail the east, south and western coast of Borikén. The fleet anchored in the Aguada-Aguadilla region.

The end of the Puerto Rican Taíno simple existence ended over 500 years ago on November 19th 1493. In 1508 Ponce de Leon arrived in the Island with intentions to settle it. It really wasn't until 1509 that colonization began. Countless atrocities were committed by the Spaniards upon the peaceful Taínos. Group suicide, forced labor, and mainly disease decimated their numbers quickly. In 1516, only eight years later, there were so few Taínos left all over the Caribbean that Father Bartolome de las Casas won a "crown order" to free the Indians.

In 1527, a small pox epidemic in Puerto Rico killed one third of the remaining Taíno population. In 1542, a Bishop was sent to Puerto Rico to inform the Indians of their "new" complete freedom.



El motivo de este tema es para expresar mi sentir hacia el pueblo de Puerto Rico, que por tanto tiempo ha sufrido el engaño y tracion de su propio pueblo, especialmente de su propio gobierno. Por mas de 100 años el pueblo de Puerto Rico ha sido victima de los caprichos de mucha gente, gente sin escrupulos que solo piensan en su bienestar y en ganar poder para cometer sus barbaridades. Hemos sido victimas de las drogas, asesinatos, robos, fraudes y muchas cosas que pasan dia a dia en la supuesta llamada “Isla Del Encanto”.

Para mi todo esto es un mito, porque si enrealidad fueramos “La Isla Del Encanto” no hubiese tanto abuso, tantas muertes, tanta injusticia y mucho menos preferencia por tu situacion economica. Es trizte ver como los “Boricuas” se matan unos a los otros, como padres asesinan a sus hijo(a)s, como funcionarios del gobierno(Victor Fajardo) se llevan el dinero que es para que nuestros niños puedan tener un futuro seguro, como alcaldes (Rafael Cordero Santiago y otros) desalojan familias de sus hogares y los tiran a las calles y no les importa donde pasaran la noche, como miembros de las iglesias abusan de niños y niñas, como niños que ni tan siquiera saben que es ser un adolesente se matan, sobre todo es trizte vivir sabiendo que en cualquier momento a quien mas tu quieres te puede quitar la vida.

Yo dia a dia vivo pensando en que sera de mi isla que un dia fue llamada “Isla Del Encanto”, vivo rezando y pidiendo a Papa Dios que nos de fuerzas para sobrevivir este mundo, para soportar lo que nos espera. Yo lloro por mi pueblo, yo sufro con mi pueblo y yo como Boricua que soy “Yo apollo a mi pueblo”.

Solo les pido a todos que rezen por mi isla, que paren la violencia, los abusos, las injusticias y sobre todo que luchen todos juntos para un mañana mejor, un futuro seguro y le demuestren al mundo que el “Boricua” si lucha por lo suyo, que los “Boricuas” estamos unidos, que los “Boricuas” no somos lo que muchos piensan, que el “Boricua” no es una polqueria. Talvez nuestro orgullo nos lleva a cometer actos que no son apropiados, pero si enrealidad amas tu patria, y la llevas con orgullo y si en realidad estas orgulloso de ser “Boricua”, protegela, respetala y no derramen sangre inocente.

Mi Poema

Quien camina una milla sin amor
se dirige a su propio funeral envuelto
en su propia mortaja.
Y yo y tu sin tener un centavo
podemos comprar los mas precioso
de la tierra
Y la mirada de unos ojos
o una arueja en su vaina
confunden la sabiduria de todos los tiempos.
Y no hay oficio ni profesion
en cual el joven que los sigue
no pueda ser un heroe.
Y no hay cosa tan fragile
que no sea el eje de las ruedas
del universo.
Y digo a cualquier hombre o mujer
que tu alma este serena y en paz
ante millones de universos
y digo a la humanidad
no hagas preguntas sobre Dios
porque yo que pregunto tantas cosas
no hago preguntas sobre Dios
No hay palabras capaces
de expresar mi seguridad
ante Dios y la muerte.
Escucho y veo a Dios en cada cosa
pero no lo comprendo en lo mas minimo
ni comprendo como pueda existir
algo mas prodigioso que yo mismo.
En el rostro de los hombres y de las mujeres
veo a Dios y en mi propio rostro en el espejo.
Encuentro cartas de Dios tiradas por las calles
y su firma en cada una
y las dejo donde estan
porque se que donde quiera que valla
otras llegaran puntualmente
Y en cuanto a ti, muerte
y a ti, amargo abrazo mortal
es inutil que trates de asustarme.

Common sense
“Use your common sense,” we are often told as children (and every now and then as adults). What does it advise-or admonition-mean? It means do what is sensible, what is prudent. Common sense is a form of wisdom, simply stated and readily understood. And so, if this wisdom is so simple, so apparent, why fill a book with it? Because, in the midst of our busy and complex lives, we may have forgotten to use our common sense. The words here, then, are a delightful reminder.Uttered by philosophers, athletes, writers, and many plain folks, the statements, proverbs, and sayings collected here are both insightful and obvious; they all resonate with truth and, well, good sense. They are pearls of wisdom-or perhaps more accurately, diamonds in the rough. In our increasingly sophisticated world, it is comforting indeed to know that common sense is still in vogue.

“Never work just for money of for power.
That won’t save your soul or help you sleep at night.”

“If you can’t change your fate, change your attitude.”

“The fool wonders, the wise man asks.”

“A wise man makes his own decisions,
an ignorant man follows the public opinion.”

“If you want a thing done well, do it your self.”

“What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing.”

“Experience is more convincing than logic.”

“Before you borrow money from a friend, decide which one you need more.”

“It is better to be wise than to seen wise.”

“When you can’t solve a problem, manage it.”

“Good judgement comes from experience. Experience comes from bad judgement.”

“The key to everything is patience. You get the chicken by hatching the egg not by smashing it.”

“Our greatest glory is not in never falling but rising every time we fall”

“When a door of happiness closes another opens
but often we look so long at the closed door
that we do not see the one which has been opened for us.”

“It’s better to keep one’s mouth shut and be thought a fool than to open it and resolve all doubt.”

“If you want to be respected by others
the great thing is to respect your self.

Only by that, only by self-respect
will you compel others to respect you.”

“Don’t worry about your originality.
You could not get rid of it even it you wanted to.
It will stick to you and show up for better or worse
in spite of all you or anyone else can do.”

“If you want the present to be different from the past, study the past.”

“Before we blame, we should first see if we can’t excuse.”

“When you can’t solve the problem, manage it.”

“Don’t fight a battle if you don’t gain anything by winning.”

“Pick battles big enough to matter, small enough to win.”

“The best time to do anything is when it can be done.”

“First you should put together your house,
then your town, then the world.”

“He who is not courageous enough to take risks
will accomplish nothing in life.”

“Never tell lie, but the truth you don’t have to tell.”

“Never take counsel of your fears.”

“We should not fear the enemy.
We should not fear the ignorant.
What is the greatest force?
The greatest force is the union of the ALKQN Kings and Queens.”

“Everything the light touches is our kingdom.”

“Being brave doesn’t mean that you look for trouble.”

“The great King of the past look down on us from the stars.”

“Remember who we are, we are the true warriors and the true Kings.”

“A king’s time as a ruler rises and falls like the sun.
One day the sun will set on my time here
and rise with you as the new ruler.”



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